Amazing Animals 1b

In the video, there are zebras, monkeys, a fox, elephants, a dog, horses and jellyfish.

Zebras

Zebras (UK: /ˈzɛbrəz/, US: /ˈziːbrəz/) (subgenus Hippotigris) are African equines with distinctive black-and-white striped coats. There are three living species: the Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi), plains zebra (E. quagga), and the mountain zebra (E. zebra). Zebras share the genus Equus with horses and asses, the three groups being the only living members of the family Equidae. Zebra stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. Several theories have been proposed for the function of these stripes, with most evidence supporting them as a deterrent for biting flies. Zebras inhabit eastern and southern Africa and can be found in a variety of habitats such as savannahs, grasslands, woodlands, shrublands, and mountainous areas.

Zebras are primarily grazers and can subsist on lower-quality vegetation. They are preyed on mainly by lions and typically flee when threatened but also bite and kick. Zebra species differ in social behaviour, with plains and mountain zebra living in stable harems consisting of an adult male or stallion, several adult females or mares, and their young or foals; while Grévy’s zebra live alone or in loosely associated herds. In harem-holding species, adult females mate only with their harem stallion, while male Grévy’s zebras establish territories which attract females and the species is promiscuous. Zebras communicate with various vocalisations, body postures and facial expressions. Social grooming strengthens social bonds in plains and mountain zebras.

Zebras’ dazzling stripes make them among the most recognisable mammals. They have been featured in art and stories in Africa and beyond. Historically, they have been highly sought after by exotic animal collectors, but unlike horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the Grévy’s zebra as endangered, the mountain zebra as vulnerable and the plains zebra as near-threatened. The quagga, a type of plains zebra, was driven to extinction in the 19th century. Nevertheless, zebras can be found in numerous protected areas.

Etymology

The English name “zebra” dates back to c. 1600, deriving from Italian, Spanish or Portuguese.  Its origins may lie in the Latin equiferus meaning “wild horse”; from equus (“horse”) and ferus (“wild, untamed”). Equiferus appears to have entered into Portuguese as ezebro or zebro, which was originally a name for a mysterious (possibly feral) equine in the wilds of the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.  In ancient times, the zebra was called hippotigris (“horse tiger”) by the Greeks and Romans.

The word “zebra” was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century, the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the norm in the UK and the Commonwealth. The pronunciation with a long initial vowel remains standard in US English.  A group of zebras is referred to as a herd, dazzle, or zeal.

Zebras are classified in the genus Equus (known as equines) along with horses and asses. These three groups are the only living members of the family Equidae.  The plains zebra and mountain zebra were traditionally placed in the subgenus Hippotigris (C. H. Smith, 1841) in contrast to the Grévy’s zebra which was considered the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus (Heller, 1912).  Groves and Bell (2004) placed all three species in the subgenus Hippotigris.  A 2013 phylogenetic study found that the plains zebra is more closely related to Grévy’s zebras than mountain zebras.  The extinct quagga was originally classified as a distinct species. Later genetic studies have placed it as the same species as the plains zebra, either a subspecies or just the southernmost population.

Zebras 3
Zebras 2
Zebras 1
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